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Business Model

The Business Model Meta-model is loosely based on the Business Motivation Model (BMM) that was developed by The Object Management Group (OMG) although various changes have been made - most notably being that it is structured using MAGMA.

¨      Motivation

¨      Vision - A statement about the enduring value the Enterprise will deliver without regard to how it is to be achieved.

¨      Goal - Statements about a state or condition of the Enterprise to be brought about or sustained through appropriate means. Compared to an Objective, a Goal tends to be: ongoing, qualitative (rather than quantitative), general (rather than specific), longer term.

¨      Objective - Statements of a specific time-targeted, measurable, attainable target that an Enterprise seeks to meet in order to achieve its Goals. Compared to a Goal, an Objective is: short-term, not continuing beyond its timeframe (which may be cyclical).

¨      Actions

¨      Mission - The ongoing operational activity of an Enterprise.

¨      Strategy - Courses of action that is one component of a plan for a Mission. It is accepted by the Enterprise as the right approach to achieve its Goals, given the environmental constraints and risks. Compared to a Tactic: longer-term, broader in scope.

¨      Tactic - Courses of action that represents part of the detailing of Strategies. Compared to a Strategy: shorter term, narrower in scope.

¨      Guidance

¨      Influence - An act, process, or power of producing an effect without apparent exertion of tangible force or direct exercise of command, and often without deliberate effort or intent.

¨      Policy - Guides the Enterprise. Compared to a Rule it is less structured, less discrete or not atomic, less carefully expressed in terms of standard vocabulary.

¨      Rule - Influences or guides business behaviour, in support of a Policy. Compared to a Policy it is highly structured, discrete or atomic, carefully expressed in terms of standard vocabulary.

¨      Measures

¨      CSF (Critical Success Factor) - are the causes of our success. Measures the things we must do to be successful and used to measure and track Actions.

¨      KPI (Key Performance Indicator) - Measures the effects of our success. They are indicators that we are winning and used to measure and track Motivation.

¨      Assessment

¨      SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) - An assessment that indicates an area of advantage or area of excellence, an area of inadequacy, something that can have a favourable impact, something that can have an un-favourable impact to the execution of the Means or achievement of Ends.

Roadmap Model

¨      Motivation

¨      Requirement - Conceptual representation of requirements. More detailed than an Objective.

¨      Actions

¨      Program - A grouping of Projects and Initiatives.

¨      Project - A grouping of Initiatives.

¨      Initiative - A piece of work.

¨      Guidance

¨      Principle - Conceptual guidance.

¨      Policy - Logical guidance.

¨      Standard - Physical guidance.

¨      Assessment

¨      Waiver - An assessment of the impact and implications of not following a Principle, Policy or Standard. A representation of Enterprise Debt™.



The name of the Principle.

Represents the essence of the Principle as well as being easy to remember.


Succinctly and unambiguously communicates the fundamental rule.

For the most part, the principles statements for managing information are similar from one Enterprise to the next. It is vital that the principles statement be unambiguous.


Highlights the reasons why this Principle exists.

Describing why this principle exists is important. If people understand why a principle exists, they are more likely to “buy-into-it” and adoption is greatly enhanced. Principles usually exist to solve a particular problem or to guide change in a particular fashion.


Highlights the implications, both for the Business and IT, for operating the principle - in terms of resources, costs, and activities/tasks.

Without implications, principles are just words that management can agree to but can then fall into disrepair due to the implications as they occur. Defining and then getting agreement on the implications is a key step in principle agreement and adoption.



Lists the measures that must be in place in order to monitor whether the positive results that each principle is meant to achieve are being achieved.

It is imperative to understand and know whether the principles are having the desired effect or not and to what degree. The metrics given for each principle define how well that principle is achieving its desired result and not the number of waivers produced. Whilst counting the number of waivers provides a simple metric for all principles, this is akin to measuring the input rather than the output. E.g. Measuring how fast we are pumping water, not how much water we are pumping. For this reason, these metrics measure the desired outputs of each principle.


Lists the tasks that must be executed to be able to operate the Principle.

If the associated tasks for a principle are not undertaken, it will be impossible to utilise and therefore gain the benefit from that principle.



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