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The reasons the work is required

Here we see an outline of the information required to perform the strategizing and Roadmapping phases that constitute “doing” Enterprise Architecture and forms the basis for a project to perform the required work.

To initiate the work a Project Brief (PRINCE2) or Project Charter (PMBOK) is required.

The project charter is the document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.

- PMBOK

A Project Brief is used to provide a full and firm foundation for the initiation of the project. Nothing should be done until certain base information needed to make rational decisions about commissioning of the project is defined, key roles & responsibilities are resourced and allocated, and a foundation for detailed planning is available.

- PRINCE2

Since the way “doing” Enterprise Architecture (aka Strategising and Roadmapping) is the same regardless of the Enterprise type, what follows is a default Project Brief.

The following brief is also available as a word document and PowerPoint briefing presentation.

 

<< Example Project Brief for

A. N. Enterprise >>

 

Purpose and Justification

The Enterprise needs to take a strategic (long term) view of itself, figure out what it wants to be in the future, and then understand what that will mean in terms of the structural changes that need to be made to the Enterprises Methods, Artefacts, Culture and Technology Environment to enable it to achieve that.

The output of this work should be Structural Roadmaps (business and technology) and a Transformational Roadmap of the required programs projects and initiatives to effect that change.

In-Scope

The whole of Enterprise including its external context.

High Level Approach

1.     Understand and document the Target Business Model.

2.     Understand and document the Business Motivation Model and how that relates to and supports the Target Business Model.

3.     Understand and document the Current and Target Operating Models, and how the Target Operating Model relates to and supports the Business Motivation Model and Target Business Model.

4.     Understand and document the Current and Target Capability Models, and how the Target Capability Model relates to and supports the Target Operating Model.

5.     Understand and document the Roadmap Model, and how the Roadmap Model effects change from the Current Capability Model to the Target Capability Model.

Definitions

¨      Business Model

¨      Used to discuss and document how the Enterprise will generate revenues and make a profit. It explains what products or services the business plans to manufacture and market, and how it plans to do so, including what expenses it will incur.

¨      Comprises information such as Customer Segments, Customer Relationships, Channels, Value Propositions, Cost Structure, Revenue Streams, Key Activities, Key Resources, Key Partnerships.

¨      Created by the board supported/facilitated by the EA offering structures to capture the information and ensuring the result is complete and consistent and raising Technology catalysts where appropriate.

¨      Industry standard used - Business Model Canvas

¨      Business Motivation Model

¨      Used to discuss and document the Enterprises business plan in terms of what it wants to achieve, how it will achieve those ends and what will guide the business

¨      Comprises information such as Vision, Goals, Objectives, Mission, Strategies, Tactics, Business Principles, Policies, Rules and Standards.

¨      Created by the board supported/facilitated by the EA offering structures to capture the information and ensuring the result is complete and consistent and raising Technology catalysts where appropriate

¨      Industry standard used: OMG - Business Motivation Model

¨      Operating Model

¨      An abstract or visual representation of how an organization delivers value to its customers or beneficiaries as well as how an organisation actually runs itself. It is the highest level structural view of the Enterprise.

¨      Comprises information such as Business Functions, Products, Information, Ethics, Roles, Countries, Technologies (including but not limited to Information Technology).

¨      Created by the EA with the board.

¨      Industry standard used: PEAF – MACE (Methods, Artefacts, Culture, Environment)

 

¨      Capability Model

¨      Describes the complete set of capabilities an Enterprise requires to execute its Business Model and fulfil its mission.

¨      Comprises information such as organizational level skills embedded in people, processes, and technology.

¨      Created by the EA.

¨      Industry standard used: PEAF – MACE (Methods, Artefacts, Culture, Environment)

¨      Roadmap

¨      Describes the programs, projects and initiatives needed to change the Methods Artefacts, Culture and Environment of the Enterprise from the Current state to the Target state in order execute the Enterprise Strategy.

¨      Comprises an interrelated set of projects programs and initiatives related to the Target Capability model Principles, Policies and Standards used to guide them.

¨      Created by the EA.

¨      Industry standard used:  PEAF – Principles.

 

High Level Project Plan and Timing

Most of this work can be carried out in parallel. If all resources are available when required, are of the required skillset, and have access to the required tools, this work could be completed in 2-4 months for most Enterprises.

Stakeholders and Key Decision Makers

¨      Senior IT Representatives (CTO, CIO, Head of Strategy and Architecture, Head of PMO, etc)

¨      Senior Business Representatives (COO, Exec Management, Department Heads, SMEs)

¨      Enterprise Architects

Considerations/Constraints

“Keep the lights on work” and short term tactical objectives already identified by the board will have to continue. The implications are that the decisions made to achieve those ends may clash with the overall strategic roadmap and will be factored in while the roadmap is being created. Opportunities to synchronise this work and the tactical work going on will be exploited where possible. This will entail tactical projects to be reviewed by this project for synergies to be identified. But, any changes to the tactical projects will only be agreed to by the Senior Exec Team.

Risks

This output of this work (to produce a set of programs projects and initiative, with associated business and technology capability roadmaps) will kick off many interrelated projects. These projects are likely to consume considerable amounts of resources (time and money) as time goes by and will represent a considerable investment by the Enterprise. In addition, perhaps more importantly, the needs of the Enterprise’s Customers and the needs of the Enterprise will only be satisfied by the execution of these projects.

Therefore, the importance of “getting this right” cannot be over stressed.

If these Roadmaps are produced as outlined in this paper, the risks of wasting those resources are minimal. It does not represent and is not purporting to create a “perfect world”, and it is not an exercise in analysis paralysis. It constitutes a pragmatic approach based on industry best practice.

If these Roadmaps are not produced as outlined in this paper, the risks of wasting those the resources that will be used to execute the resulting projects are massive. But those costs are likely to pale into insignificance compared to the failure of the Enterprise to execute its business strategy.

 

Detailed Outputs

Business Model

Created by the board supported/facilitated by the EA offering structures to capture the information and ensuring the result is complete and consistent and raising Technology catalysts where appropriate. e.g. using the Business Model Canvas, workshops

¨      Customer Segments: Who are the customers? What do they think? See? Feel? Do?

¨      Customer Relationships: How do you interact with the customer through their ‘journey’?

¨      Channels: How are these propositions promoted, sold and delivered? Why? Is it working?

¨      Value Propositions: What’s compelling about the proposition? Why do customers buy, use?

¨      Cost Structure: What are the business’ major cost drivers? How are they linked to revenue?

¨      Revenue Streams: How does the business earn revenue from the value propositions?

¨      Key Activities: What uniquely strategic things does the business do to deliver its proposition?

¨      Key Resources: What unique strategic assets must the business have to compete?

¨      Key Partnerships: What can the company not do so it can focus on its Key Activities?

Business Motivation Model

Created by the board supported/facilitated by the EA offering structures to capture the information and ensuring the result is complete and consistent and raising Technology catalysts where appropriate. e.g. using the OMG BMM, workshops

¨      Motivation (Ends)

¨      Vision: A statement about the future state of the enterprise, without regard to how it is to be achieved.

¨      Goals: Statements about a state or condition of the enterprise to be brought about or sustained through appropriate means. Compared to an Objective, a Goal tends to be: ongoing, qualitative (rather than quantitative), general (rather than specific), longer term.

¨      Objectives: Statements of a specific time-targeted, measurable, attainable target that an enterprise seeks to meet in order to achieve its Goals. Compared to a Goal, an Objective is: short-term, not continuing beyond its timeframe (which may be cyclical).

¨      Actions (Means)

¨      Mission: The ongoing operational activity of an enterprise.

¨      Strategies: Courses of action that is one component of a plan for a Mission. It is accepted by the enterprise as the right approach to achieve its Goals, given the environmental constraints and risks. Compared to a Tactic: longer-term, broader in scope.

¨      Tactics: Courses of action that represents part of the detailing of Strategies. Compared to a Strategy: shorter term, narrower in scope.

¨      Guidance: Business Principles, Polices and Rules

¨      Measures: KPIs, CSFs

¨      Assessment: The results of measures as time moves forward.

Operating Model

Created by the EA with the board. Defines the highest level structural view of the Enterprise in terms of

¨      Methods: Information about what is required to be done.

¨      Artefacts: Information about the things that are being consumed and produced by the Methods.

¨      Culture: Information about the Roles required to perform the Methods.

¨      Environment (technical): Information about the technical Environment that is used to execute the Methods and work with the Artefacts.

 

Capability Models

Business and Technical capability models – current, target, intermediate

¨      Methods: Information about what is being done and how it is being done. E.g. Functions, Processes, Practices, Activities, Phases, Disciplines.

¨      Artefacts: Information about the things that are being consumed and produced by the methods. E.g. Products, Services, Materials, Information.

¨      Culture: Information about the People that are being used to perform the Methods. E.g. People, Values, Ethics, Trust, Psychology.

¨      Environment (technical): Information about the technical Environment that is used to execute the Methods and work with the Artefacts.

Roadmap Model

The programs, projects and initiatives needed to effect change from current through intermediate, including a set of Principles to guide and govern project execution.

¨      Motivation: The reasons why we are transforming. (Requirements)

¨      Actions: Information about the things we need to do in order to satisfy the requirements. (Project outline)

¨      Guidance: Link to the associated structural roadmaps.

¨      Measures: Information about the things that will allow us to know if we have achieved the goals of the project.

¨      Assessment: The results of measures as time moves forward.

 

 

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