Enterprise Architecture

A Pragmatic Approach Using PEAF


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PEAF provides a toolkit of documents to allow for easy adoption. However, it should be noted that this is only one way the content of PEAF can be viewed and utilised. Enterprises and Individuals can create other views and sets of products by adopting and using the Pragmatic Publishing Platform (P3).

Products are split into 4 sections:


The foundation section provides the products required for starting and/or restarting an existing EA initiative.

¨      Using these as a starting point allows a rapid definition and proposal to be formulated.

¨      Once formulated, the board can quickly decide whether to pursue an EA initiative or not.


People and Communication are the key to EA. Without them and their understanding, everything else is superfluous.

¨      These products, coupled with the preparation work in the “Implementation” phase and the provision of training and education in the “Operate” phase, are the most important of all the products. It is also the hardest to get right and the easiest to overlook, which is why so many EA initiatives fail.

Communication and education is one of the keys to mitigating many of the risks associated with adoption EA. For this reason, good quality and continuous education is mandatory if Enterprise Architecture is to be a success.

If it is not done, or done badly, your EA initiative WILL FAIL.



The main artefacts of EA are the models which allow information to be gathered, viewed and analysed.

¨      The EA Model is the bedrock of EA.

¨      While people are the key to its success, the EA Model forms the backbone of an EA initiative as it is the main repository of information about the Enterprise, its objectives, Goals, Targets and Strategies.

The model is not meant to be used by an elite group of individuals. The more people use it, and the more people contribute to it the more benefit the Enterprise will attain.


Providing an environment to guide change as it happens throughout the Enterprise.

¨      The Governance section covers the quality control which makes sure that either agreed principles, policies and standards are being followed, or, if not, that the impacts, risks and implications of not doing so are costed, understood, accepted and managed.

¨      A key point regarding governance is that it should not be viewed as a policing environment where things are rejected and accepted or that penalties are incurred for breaking the rules.

¨      The approach must be culture based, with the Enterprise (Business and IT) understanding the reasons behind the principles, policies and standards existing and how they contribute to move the Enterprise from where it is to where it want s to be.

Processes are split into 3 phases:


Concerned with setting out the business case for starting an EA initiative and gaining the required remit, budget and resources.  The resulting EA Implementation Plan is born out of considering the Maturity model, deciding upon the level that an Enterprise currently maps to, the level that it wishes to map to, and the timescales in which it would like to make the transition.


Concerned with making the necessary identified changes and adjustments to the enterprise in preparation for it to be able to utilise Enterprise Architecture. The work required to be undertaken is totally dependant on each enterprises specific goals and timescales identified in the Prepare phase of PEAF (which considers their current and target EA maturity levels).


Concerned with the processes of “doing” Enterprise architecture. These processes are largely the same for all enterprises although they may change slightly depending upon the structure of specific enterprises.




This product details a Maturity Model which describes maturity levels for each part and sub-part of the Framework. One dimension defines a set of levels 1-4. The other dimension consists of domains which match the structure of the framework. At the intersection of each the maturity model defines the benefit of attaining that level, the motivation for attaining it, and the tasks involved in moving to that level.


This product details the strategies, tactics and objectives of adopting Enterprise Architecture and the strategic goals of the Enterprise that they flow from. Without a clear vision that the Enterprise Leadership can understand, agree and believe in, the rest of the initiative is irrelevant.


This product details the risks associated with bringing Enterprise Architecture to an organization. Most of these risks deal with peoples misconceptions about EA.  Each risk defined documents the impact and general mitigation strategies to deal with it. A placeholder is left for specific mitigation strategies for each individual organization.





Communication with the entire enterprise is absolutely paramount. EA is all about joining the business and IT in a mutually beneficial partnership where both work together in a symbiotic and open relationship. These products comprise a set of MS PowerPoint slides and speaker notes to be used to explain what EA in general and PEAF in particular is, what it is not and how to “do it”.


This product deals with the relationships between people & the various groups that exist within an Enterprise. A framework cannot create or fix relationships within an Enterprise but it can highlight the framework those relationships exist with and the fundamentals of those relationships. It also provides a list of the resources required to prepare, implement and operate EA. Job Descriptions and Terms of Reference are provided for key individuals and groups. This is a Critical Success Factor for an EA initiative. Without the correct harmonious relationships and culture, an EA initiative is destined to fail.





This product details a high level Metamodel which describes the entities (things) an Enterprise wants to collect information about along with what relationships that can exist between those entities. This starter set of entities can be modified and augmented in any way depending upon the specifics of the Enterprise it is being used in or even replaced all together is an preferred or existing Metamodel is already in use.

Tool - Rationale

This product sets out why an EA modelling tool is required and then goes on to define different types of tools, their strengths and weaknesses and when to adopt them.

Tool - Requirements

This product details a set of requirements for the selection of an EA Modelling Tool.

Tool - Vendors

This product identifies and presents information regarding all the EA tool vendors presently in the marketplace.

Tool - Scores

This product details the vendor supplied scores against each of the requirements. The evaluations have been supplied by the vendors themselves. Pragmatic EA Ltd accepts no responsibility for the accuracy of the information presented. Accuracy and correctness of the information rests solely with the individual companies concerned.





This product details a set of widely accepted principles that apply to 99.9% of Enterprises. As work progresses, these principles should be augmented with principles arising from considering the Enterprise Strategy Model. The purpose of these principles is not to constrain, but to provide a broad cultural framework in which work will be carried out.

TD Agreement

This product details the information that should be captured to understand when Transformation Debt™ is being created and the impact of that debt so that informed decisions can be mode.




EA - Why Should I Care?

These processes are concerned with setting out the raison d’être for adopting EA. It defines the Vision, the Risks involved, and considers the Maturity of the Enterprise with respect to EA. Having agreed how mature the Enterprise is, how mature it wishes to be and how the risks will be mitigated, a plan can then be drawn up to allow the board to decide whether to proceed to implementation and operation or not.

Select EA Framework

Understand EA Framework

Plan EA Rollout



Mitigate the EA Risks

This process identifies and mitigates the risks associated with an EA initiative.

Prepare & Provide EA Education

This process creates the necessary communication materials required for ongoing and continuous education and two way communication and begins to provide it. It is concerned with educating people about Enterprise Architecture in general and about the framework the Enterprise has chosen in particular. This process, coupled with the provision of training and education in the “Operate” phase, is the most important of all the processes.


Communication and education is one of the keys to mitigating many of the risks associated with adoption EA. For this reason, good quality and continuous education is mandatory if Enterprise Architecture is to be a success.

If it is not done, or done badly, your EA initiative WILL FAIL.

Prepare & Rollout Culture Change

This process effects the cultural and human change necessary to bring about a more long term view of the management and direction of the Enterprise.

Without this, it does not matter how many principles, processes or models you adopt as the direction and management will continue to compromise the future of the Enterprise for short term (usually) financial individual gain. This process analyses the current culture determines what changes are required and then rolls out those changes.

Define & Setup EA Metamodel

This process defines and set’s up the Metamodel that will be used for gathering and analysing information that is to be stored in the EA Modelling Tool. Since some EA Modelling Tools have pre-existing and somewhat static Metamodel’s this process may not be required.

However, even if the approach is to use whatever Metamodel that comes with the Tool that will be selected, it is still a good idea to go through this process to identify the initial entities, relationships and views that are initially important to the enterprise as beginning with a massive and detailed Metamodel can dilute the focus. In addition, the Metamodel for the Structural domains (e.g. Current, Target and Intermediate as distinct from the Strategy, Portfolio and Principles domains) is somewhat driven by the process for populating the current model. I.E. based on the question(s) that are required to be answered.

Another dimension to be aware of is that whatever Metamodel is chosen, the Metamodel will expand as times goes on and therefore consideration should be given not only to the initial Metamodel but also how that Metamodel will grow over time and therefore consideration should be given to an EA Metamodel Roadmap.

Select & Rollout EA Modelling Tool

This process is concerned with the procurement and installation of an EA modelling tool. It should be noted that any information within the Enterprise is not an island and therefore due consideration must be given to how the EA tool fits in with the landscape of other tools utilised by the Enterprise (e.g. portfolio planning and management, Risk Management, Configuration Management and change management, etc).

Setup EA Governance

This process creates a set of principles and puts in place the governance structure required to operate them effectively.

Prepare & Rollout Process Change

This process analyses the current state of the processes in the Operate phase, determines what changes are required, and then rolls out those changes.




Measure, Analyse & Adjust


This process is concerned with utilizing the metrics defined in the Maturity Model and gathering the associated data, analysing it to understand how effective the initiative is, and then to make necessary ongoing adjustments.

Provide EA Education

This process takes the communication materials and communication plan that were created in the Implementation Phase, and continues the EA education. This process, coupled with the preparation work in the “Implementation” phase is the most important of all the processes.


Communication and education is one of the keys to mitigating many of the risks associated with adoption EA. For this reason, good quality and continuous education is mandatory if Enterprise Architecture is to be a success.

If it is not done, or done badly, your EA initiative WILL FAIL.


Education and Training consists of two main areas.

  1. Formal classroom based information and knowledge transfer.

This is kind of education is required to be able to present and transfer key knowledge and information about Enterprise Architecture, what it is consists of and the mechanics of how to adopt and operate it.

  1. Informal discussions, workshops and round tables.

This kind of education is required because there will be many questions and reticence on the part of some groups or individuals consisting of worry’s misunderstandings and existing “baggage” that, if not tackled and tackled successfully, will totally undermine and erode an EA initiative.


This process is concerned with how modelling of all Structural and Transformation artefacts should be done.


In most Enterprises this is the most abused and badly performed process and is the second major cause of the failure of EA initiatives.

If it is not done, or done badly, your EA initiative WILL FAIL.

Strategic Planning

This process is concerned with the creation of the Structural and Transformational artefacts that comprise the Enterprise Strategy.

Most Enterprises perform this process but because they do not model the information and do not apply Architectural Analysis, the results are usually more of a name on the front of a document rather than a real Enterprise Strategy.


This process is concerned with Annual Business Planning, which generally takes place once per year in preparation for the creation of the portfolio of projects that will need to be executed during the next financial year.  Roadmapping can also be triggered at any time by large changes in the enterprises direction or priorities or in the business context that it operates within.

Review Options & Solutions

The purpose of governance is to ensure that as change happens on a daily basis, that change is guided in accordance with the bigger strategic and long term picture of the enterprise.

Governance must not put up barriers and stop work from happening, but should allow decisions to be made in the context of the implications and the Transformation Debt™ that may be incurred.

Even though strategic plans are put into place, it is not long into the financial year that events can overtake an enterprise where those plans need adjustment. In addition, by the time work gets down to the projects and programmes to carry out the work, the strategic intent can be easily lost amongst the (rightly) blinkered focus of projects.


Supplementary files

PEAF-1- Context - 160 Char - Analysis.doc

The full analysis document of the 160 Character Challenge, allowing you to read the full comments and methods of analysis.

PEAF-1- Context - 160 Char - Analysis.xlsx

The full source data of the 160 Character Challenge, allowing you to perform your own analysis.

PEAF-1- Context - EA Definitions.docx

A collection of EA definitions from various sources.

PEAF-2- Environment - Framework - Comparison.xlsx

The spreadsheet comparing PEAF to TOGAF and Zachman, allowing you to tailor it and the weightings.

PEAF-2- Environment - Tool Vendor - Evaluation.xlsx

The full detailed 154 page Tool Vendor Evaluation spreadsheet, allowing you to read the EA Tool vendors scoring and detailed comments.

PEAF-2- Environment - Tool Vendor - Licensing.docx

A document listing licensing details of many of the EA Tool vendors, allowing you to understand the commercial implications of many of the EA Tool vendors.

PEAF-6- Adoption - Start.pptx

A PowerPoint Presentation used in the Strategising Phase of Adoption, allowing you to immediately start to get buy-in for you initiative to increase your Enterprises maturity in its use of EA.

PEAF-6- Adoption-3a - Assessment - High Level.docx

A high-level maturity assessment document, which allows you to concentrate on defining where you may have problems or where there are opportunities with respect to each Transformation phase of EA.

PEAF-6- Adoption-3b - Assessment - Medium Level.docx

A medium-level maturity assessment document, which allows you to concentrate on defining where you may have problems or where there are opportunities with respect to the MACE of each Transformation phase of EA.

PEAF-6- Adoption-3c - Assessment - Detailed.xlsx

A detailed maturity assessment spreadsheet to allow you to assess your Enterprise’s maturity against what PEAF determines to be the most important aspects of EA, and thereby begin to understand what areas you need to concentrate on.


Questions to ponder...

Do you think anything is missing from the PEAF Toolkit?

If so, what is missing and why?

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